Partiview (PC-VirDir) <author> Peter Teuben, Stuart Levy <date> 15 February 2005 <abstract> partiview is a program that enables you to visualize and animate particle data. partiview runs on relatively simple desktops and laptops, but is mostly compatible with its big brother VirDir. This document helps you installing and running the development version of partiview. </abstract> <!-- Table of contents --> <toc> <!-- Begin the document --> <!--------------------------------------------------------------------------- --> <sect> Installation <p> This assumes you have the post-July 2001 release (version 0.6 or later) of <bf/partiview/, not the earlier "<bf/gview/" release that was described in earlier versions of this document. We keep copies of some Linux support files (Mesa, FLTK) on our current <htmlurl url="" name=""> website. Although more current versions of support libraries may be available, they may not have been tested out. This release has been tried on Linux (red hat 6.2, 7.1, 7.2), Irix and Windows. Additional comments were added how to compile and run under a more modern version of redhat,e.g. Fedora Core 3. <p> partiview needs two libraries to compile: OpenGL (or MESA) for the drawing operations, and FLTK for the graphical user interface. These libraries are known to work on MS-Windows as well as many Unix flavors. Newer version of X-windows (notably xorg-x11-Mesa) also work. <sect1> MESA/OpenGL <p> First make sure <tt/Mesa/ is installed, for <tt/redhat6.2/ there are rpm files available. For <tt/redhat7.1+/ they are now included in the basic distribution. Check if you have something like the following (version numbers may be different): <tscreen><code> % rpm -qa | grep Mesa Mesa-3.2-2 Mesa-devel-3.2-2 else: % rpm -i Mesa-3.2-2.i686.rpm Mesa-devel-3.2-2.i686.rpm for Fedora Core 3 you will need xorg-x11-Mesa-libGLU-6.8.1-12.FC3.21 xorg-x11-Mesa-libGL-6.8.1-12.FC3.21 or variations thereof. This particular version worked for FC3. </code></tscreen> You should have both installed. Some packages will use <tt/libMesaGL/, others <tt/libGL/. Our <tt/configure/ script (see below) should take care of the two possible options. <p> Homepage: <htmlurl url="" name=""> <p> Redhat packages: (part of powertools I believe) <P> Mesa3D is under continuous development. As of this writing the stable release is 4.0.1, but it has not been tested with the current partiview release. Redhat 7.1 comes with Mesa-3.4 and also works with partiview. You can also use a CVS release of Mesa. <sect1> FLTK <p> Also make sure <tt/FLTK/ is installed. If you got our version, do this (as root) <tscreen><code> % locate libfltk.a % locate Fl_Slider.h if they fail, then % cd <where-ever>/fltk-1.0.9 % make install </code></tscreen> (you only need it if you want to recompile the program at some point, not if you just want to run it) <p> Homepage: <htmlurl url="" name=""> <p> Redhat packages: <htmlurl url="" name=""> <p> Find rpms: <htmlurl url="" name=""> <P> FLTK is under continuous development. Versions from 1.0.9 through 1.1.0rc3 have been successfully tested with partiview. Some problems with other versions exist, but 1.1.4 is also known to work. The upcoming 2.0 version of FLTK is unlikely to work with partiview. <p> A more recent example with which partiview was compiled was fltk 1.1.4. On Fedora Core 3 this is available as RPM in the fedora-extras repository. The following 3 rpm's were needed and lead to a successfull compile: <tscreen><code> fltk-1.1.4-8 fltk-fluid-1.1.4-8 fltk-devel-1.1.4-8 and use --with-fltk=/usr in the configure step of building partiview (see below) </code></tscreen> <!-- therefore we don't want to mention this now, right? -slevy Here is an example of getting a CVS version of FLTK and installing it in your alternate installation tree /opt: {tscreen}{code} % cvs -d co fltk % cd fltk % configure {-}-prefix=/opt/lib % setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH `pwd`/lib % make % make install {/code}{/tscreen} Note that fltk uses .h and .H files, and installing does not fix these problems. --><tscreen><code> % tar zxf partiview-0.6.tar.gz % cd partiview-0.6/src % make clean (if you really must compile a new executable) % ./configure (GNU autoconf toolset to ease installation) % make depend (might need to make new local dependancies) % make partiview (should not have to edit Makefile anymore) </code></tscreen> <sect1> partiview <p> You can decide to use a branded version, usually available as a tar or zip file, or use the CVS (see below). Extract the tarball, and install the program from within the <tt/src/ directory: <tscreen><code> % tar zxf partiview-0.6.tar.gz % cd partiview-0.6/src % make clean (if you really must compile a new executable) % ./configure (GNU autoconf toolset to ease installation) % make depend (might need to make new local dependancies) % make partiview (should not have to edit Makefile anymore) </code></tscreen> If you encounter difficulties of locating either the FLTK or MESA/OpenGL libraries, configure script options can specify them: <tt/--with-fltk=/<it/dirname/ names the directory which contains the <tt/lib/ and <tt/FL/ subdirectories, <tt/--with-mesa=/<it/dirname/ can specify the Mesa installation directory [??], and <tt/--with-kira=/<it/dirname/ names the Starlab directory, whose default value is taken from environment variable STARLAB_PATH if that is set. <sect1> CVS <p> Since version 0.5 <tt/partiview/ is under CVS control, and occasionally we will stamp out a new release when we deem it stable. Anonymous or read-only CVS access is also offered. Currently the CVS repository machine is <tt/ and you will need to setup your developers account with Peter (<tt/ Here's a sample session with some commonly used CVS commands: <tscreen><code> setenv CVSROOT setenv CVSEDITOR emacs setenv CVS_RSH ssh (not needed for pserver access though) cvs login (only needed once, and only for pserver type access) cvs checkout partiview # get a new local sandbox to work in, or cd partiview # goto the root directory of partiview cvs -n -q update # check if others had made any changes cvs update # if so, update your sandbox and/or resolve conflicts cd partiview/src # goto the 'src' directory of partiview ./configure emacs partibrains.c # edit some files make all # compile the program ./partiview # test the program emacs # edit another file make all # check if it still compiles cvs -n -q update # check if anybody else made changes cvs update # if so, update your sandbox again, resolve conflicts cvs commit # and commit your changes </code></tscreen> <sect1> Compiling under Windows <p> Partiview can be compiled from the command line on Windows using either the Microsoft Visual C tools (<tt/cl, nmake,/ etc.) or using <tt>gcc/g++</tt> with <tt/MinGW32, MSYS and w32api/. The MinGW route is currently the only way to compile with kira/Starlab support. There's no provision for building partiview within the MS Visual Studio GUI. To compile with Microsoft C: <p> <enum> <item> Install FLTK using MS Visual C++ as described in its documentation. <item> Unpack the <tt/partiview/ distribution from its tarball or via CVS. <item> Edit the file <tt>partiview/src/partiview.mak</tt>, changing <tt/FLTK_DIR/ as appropriate. <item> Run the <tt/vcvars32.bat/ script from the Developer Studio <tt/Bin/ directory; this will set the MSVCDIR environment variable, add the <tt/Bin/ directory to PATH, etc. <item> In the <tt>partiview/src</tt> directory, compile with <tscreen><verb> nmake -f partiview.mak </verb></tscreen> Dependencies are <it/not/ properly maintained by this Makefile, so use <tt/nmake -f partiview.mak clean/ if you change anything. </enum> To compile with MinGW and company, you'll need to: <enum> <item> Install <tt/MinGW/ (gcc, etc.), its associated <tt/w32api/ libraries and header files, and the <tt/MSYS/ suite of UNIX-like tools. All three packages are available at: <htmlurl url="" name=""> Recent releases of w32api include MinGW versions of OpenGL libraries and headers, which partiview needs. As of June 2002, current versions seem to be <tt/mingw-1.0.1-20010726, w32api-1.4-2, and MSYS-1.0.7/. Unpack the .zip or .tar archives of MinGW and w32api; both packages are intended to live in the same directory. The MSYS package comes as a self-extracting archive and can be extracted into a different directory as desired. (But don't attempt to merge the MSYS <tt/bin/ directory contents into <tt>mingw/bin</tt>.) <item> Add both the MSYS <tt/bin/ subdirectory and MinGW <tt/bin/ subdirectory to the Windows PATH environment variable, with the MSYS directory coming earlier, e.g. in a command window <tscreen><verb> set path=%path%;C:\util\msys\1.0\bin;C:\util\mingw\bin </verb></tscreen> or the analogous setting of PATH using (on WinNT/2000 at least) <tt/My Computer -> Control Panel -> System -> Environment/ to make a permanent change to PATH. <item> Build FLTK using MinGW. Unpack its source distribution and say <tscreen><verb> sh configure make </verb></tscreen> <item> Build the Starlab libraries, if desired: <enum> <item>You may need to install CVS for Windows. Binary packages are available; follow the Win32 link on <htmlurl url="" name="">. Put the resulting cvs.exe file into the PATH somewhere. <item>Use CVS to checkout the Starlab sources into some directory: <tscreen><verb> cd C:\some\where set cvs login cvs checkout starlab cd starlab </verb></tscreen> <item>Copy <tt>templates\starlab_setup.bat</tt> to <tt>local\starlab_setup.bat</tt>, and edit it. Change the first two <tt/set/ commands: set <tt/STARLAB_PATH/ to the installation directory -- in the above example, <tt>set STARLAB_PATH=C:\some\where\starlab</tt>. Also optionally update (or remove) <tt/set PATH=.../ to add MSYS and MinGW <tt/bin/ directories to it. <item>From a Windows command window, type <tscreen><verb> local\starlab_setup make libs </verb></tscreen> <item>If successful, you should find in the <tt/lib/ directory the files <tt/libdstar.a libdyn.a libnode.a librdc.a libsstar.a libstd.a libtdyn.a/ </enum> <p> <item> Now, back in the <tt>partiview/src</tt> directory, use <tt/configure/ and <tt/make/ as under Unix. The MSYS package imposes its own UNIX-like syntax for Windows pathnames, which you'll need to use as arguments to configure and friends, with forward- instead of backslashes and a /<it/drive-letter/ prefix. Also, if typing to a Windows command-window, shell scripts like <tt>configure</tt> must be explicitly fed to <tt>sh</tt>. Thus for example if FLTK is installed in <tt>C:\util\fltk-1.1.0</tt> and Starlab is in <tt>F:\src\starlab</tt>, then you might build partiview by typing <tscreen><verb> sh configure --with-fltk=/c/util/fltk-1.1.0 --with-kira=/f/src/starlab make </verb></tscreen> Note there's no need to specify the location of the OpenGL or other libraries; the configure script and MinGW tools already know where to find them. </enum> <!--------------------------------------------------------------------------- --> <sect> Directory structure <p> Here is the directory structure, as per version 0.1: <p> <tscreen><verb> partiview/ root directory partiview/src source code partiview/data sample datafiles (e.g. Hipparcos Bright Star Catalogue) partiview/doc manual (sgml, and derived html, txt, ps/dvi) partiview/nemo NEMO specific converters/code partiview/starlab STARLAB specific converters/code partiview/tutor examples of tutorial type code (added in 0.2) partiview/windows windows executables/support (old) </verb></tscreen> <sect> Running the program <p> First we describe a simple example how to run <tt/partiview/ with a supplied sample dataset. Then we describe the different windows that <tt/partiview/ is made up of, and the different commands and keystrokes it listens to. <sect1> Example 1: Hipparcos Bright Star Catalogue 3-D viewing <p> Start the program using one of the sample "speck" files in the <tt/data/ directory: <tscreen><code> % cd partiview/data % ./hipbright or % partiview hipbright </code></tscreen> and this should come up with a display familiar to most of us who watch the skies. You should probably enlarge the window a bit. Mine comes up in roughly a 300 by 300 display window, which may be a bit small (certainly on my screen :-) (Hint: the <tt/.partiviewrc/ file may contain commands like <tt/eval winsize 600 400/.) Hit the TAB key to bring focus to the (one line) command window inbetween the log screen (top) and viewing screen (bottom). Type the commands <tscreen><code> fov 50 (field of view 50 degrees) jump 0 0 0 80 70 60 (put yourself in the origin and look at euler angles RxRyRz (80,70,60) </code></tscreen> and it should give another nice comfy view :-) If you ever get lost, and this is not hard, use the <tt/jump/ command to go back to a known position and/or viewing angle. <figure loc="tbp"> <img src="pv1.gif"> <caption>partiview view</caption> </figure> <p> Note that spatial units for this dataset are parsecs, though angular units are degrees for any data in partiview. <p> Now play with the display, use the 't', 'r', 'f' and 'o' keys (keys are case sensitive) in the viewing window and use the left and mouse buttons down to (carefully) move around a bit, and make yourself comfortable with moving around. Using the 't' button you get some idea of the distance of the stars by moving back and forth a little (the parallax trick). In fact, if you 't' around a little bit, you may see a green line flashing through the display. This is one of the RGB (xyz) axes attached to the (0,0,0) [our sun] position. You should see Procyon and Sirius exhibit pretty large parallaxes, but Orion is pretty steady since it is several hundred parsecs away. If you move the right mouse button you will zoom in/out and should see our Sun flash by with the red-green-blue axes. <p> The RGB axes represent the XYZ axes in a (right-handed) cartesian system. For the Hipparcos data the X (red) axis points to RA=0h, Y (green) axis to RA=6h, both in the equatorial plane, and the Z (blue) axis points to the equatorial north pole. <p> Try and use the middle mouse button (or the 'p' key) to click on Sirius or Procyon, and see if you can get it to view its properties. Now use the 'P' key to switch center to rotation to that star. Sirius is probably a good choice. Move around a bit, and try and get the sun and orion in the same view :-) <p> [NOTE: these Hipparcos data do not have reliably distance above 100-200 pc, so Orion's individual distances are probably uncertain to 30%] <p> A little bit on the types of motion, and what the mouse buttons do <tscreen><code> | left middle right | Button-1 Button-2 Button-3 Shift Button-1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ f (fly) | fly 'pick' zoom o (orbit) | orbit 'pick' zoom r (rotate) | rotate X/Y 'pick' rotate Z translate t (translate) | translate 'pick' zoom </code></tscreen> The point of origin for rotations can be changed with the 'P' button. First you can try and pick ('p' or Button-2) a point, and if found, hit 'P' to make this point the new rotation center default. <tscreen><code> red = X axis green = Y axis blue = Z axis </code></tscreen> To choose an arbitrary center of rotation, use the <tt/center/ command. <sect1> Top Row <p> The top row contains some shortcuts to some frequently used commands. From left to right, it should show the following buttons: <p> <descrip> <tag> More </tag> Offers some mode switches as toggles: <tt/inertia/ for continues spin or motion, and an <tt/H-R Diagram/ to invoke a separate H-R diagram window for datasets that support stellar evolution. <tag> [g1] </tag> Pulldown g1, g2, ... (or whichever group) is the currently selected group. See <tt/object/ command to make aliases which group is defined to what object. If multiple groups are defined, the next row below this contains a list of all the groups, and their aliases, so you can toggle them to be displayed. <tag> [f]ly </tag> Pulldown to select fly/orbit/rot/tran, which can also be activate by pressing the f/o/r/t keys inside the viewing window. <tag> point </tag> Toggle to turn the points on/off. See also the <tt/points/ command. <tag> poly </tag> Toggle to turn polygons on/off. See also the <tt/polygon/ command. <tag> lbl </tag> Toggle to turn labels on/off. See also the <tt/label/ command. <tag> tex </tag> Toggle to turn textures on/off. See also the <tt/texture/ command. <tag> box </tag> Toggle to turn boxes on/off. See also the <tt/boxes/ command. <tag> #.### </tag> The current displayed value of the <tt/logslum lum/ slider (see next) <tag> logslum lum </tag> Slider controlling the logarithm of the <bf/datavar/ variable selected as luminosity (with the <tt/lum/ command). </descrip> <sect1> Group row (optional) <p> When more than one group has been activated (groups of particles or objects can have their own display properties, and be turned on and off at will), a new Group Row will appear as the 2nd row. <p> Left-clicking (button 1) on a button toggles the display of that group; right-clicking (button 3) enables display of the group, and also selects it as the current group for GUI controls and text commands. <sect1> Time Animation rows (Optional) <p> For time-dependent data, the third and fourth row from the top control the currently displayed data-time. This time-control bar is only visible when the object has a nonzero time range. <descrip> <tag> T </tag> Shows the current time (or offset from the tripmeter). The absolute time is the sum of the <bf/T/ and <bf/+/ fields. Both are editable. See also the <tt/step/ control command. <tag>trip </tag> Press to mark a reference point in time. The T field becomes zero, and the + field (below) is set to current time. As time passes, T shows the offset from this reference time. <tag>back </tag> Press to return to reference time (sets T to 0). <tag> + </tag> Current last time where tripmeter was set. You can reset to the first frame with the command <tt/step 0/ <tag> dial </tag> Drag to adjust the current time. Sensitivity depends on the speed setting; dragging by one dial-width corresponds to 0.1 wall-clock second of animation, i.e. 0.1 * <it/speed/ in data time units. <tag> |< </tag> <tag> >| </tag> Step time backwards or forwards by 0.1 * <it/speed/ data time units. See also the <tt/</ and <tt/>/ keyboard shortcuts. <tag> << </tag> <p> <tag> >> </tag> toggle movie move forwards in time Toggle animating backwards or forwards in time, by 1 * <it/speed/ data time units per real-time second. See also the <tt/{/, <tt/~/, and <tt/}/ keyboard shortcuts. <tag> #.#### </tag> (Logarithmic) value denoting <it/speed/ of animation. See also the <tt/speed/ control command. </descrip> <sect1> Camera (path) Animation row <p> The fifth (or 4th or 3rd, depending if Group and/or Time rows are present) row from the top controls loading and playing sequences of moving through space. <p> <descrip> <tag> Path... </tag> Brings up a filebrowser to load a <bf/.wf/ path file. This is a file with on each line 7 numbers: xyz location, RxRyRz viewing direction, and FOV (field of view). The <tt/rdata/ command loads such path files too. <tag> Play </tag> Play the viewpoint along the currently loaded path, as the <tt/play/ command does. Right-click for a menu of play-speed options. <tag> << < [###] >>> </tag> Step through camera-path frames. See also <tt/frame/ control command. <tag> slider </tag> Slides through camera path, and displays current frame. </descrip> <sect1> Logfile window <p> The third window from the top contains a logfile of past commands and responses to them, and can be resized by dragging the bar between command window and viewing window. The Logfile window also has a scroll bar on the left. You can direct the mouse to any previous command, and it will show up in the command window. Using the arrow keys this command can then be edited. <p> <sect1> Command window <p> The Command window is a single line entry window, in which Control Commands can be given. Their responses appear in the Logfile window and on the originating console. (unlike Data Commands, which show no feedback). You can still give Data Commands in this window by prefixing them with the <tt/add/ command. The Up- and Down-arrow keys (not those on the keypad) scroll through previous commands, and can be edited using the arrow keys and a subset of the emacs control characters. <p> <sect1> Viewing window <p> The (OpenGL) Viewing window is where all the action occurs. Typically this is where you give single keystroke commands and/or move the mouse for an interactive view of the data. It can be resized two ways: either by resizing the master window, or by picking up the separator between Viewing window and Command window above. <sect1> Example 2: a (starlab) animation <p> Setting up a small animation in for example Starlab can be done quite simply as follows: (see also the makefile to create a standard one): <tscreen><code> % makeplummer -i -n 20 | makemass -l 0.5 -u 10.0 | scale -s | kira -d 2 -D x10 > run1 % partiview % cat kira run1 eval every eval lum mass 0 0.01 eval psize 100 eval cment 1 1 .7 .3 eval color clump exact </code></tscreen> Alternatively, if you had started up partiview without any arguments, the following Control Command (see below) would have done the same <tscreen><code> read </code></tscreen> <sect1> Example 3: stereo viewing <p> The 's' key within the viewing window toggles stereo viewing. By default each object is split in a blue and a red part, that should be viewed with a pair of red(left)/blue(right) glasses. Red/green glasses will probably work too. Crosseyed viewing is also available if selected by <bf/stereo cross/. See <bf/stereo/ and <bf/focallen/ in the View Commands section. <sect1> Example 4: subsetting <p> In the <tt/data/ directory, run <verb> partiview </verb> One of the data fields for these stars is the <it/B-V/ color, <tt/colorb_v/, abbreviatable to just <tt/color/. Look at just the bluest stars: try <verb> thresh color < -.1 </verb> Back off to a large distance (drag with right mouse button, and drag the <tt/logslum lum/ slider to brighten) and look at the distribution of these blue stars. The Orion spiral-arm spur, extending generally along the +Y (green) axis, has lots of them. Now look at more reddish stars, those with .5 <= <it/B-V/ <= 1.5, with: <verb> thresh color .5 1.5 </verb> These are much more uniformly distributed in the galactic plane. Return to seeing all stars, with: <verb> see all </verb> or re-view the threshold-selected subset (reddish stars) with <verb> see thresh </verb> or its complement with <verb> see -thresh </verb> <!-- --> <p> <sect> Commands <p> There are two types of commands in <tt/partiview/: Control Commands and Data Commands. Probably the most important difference between the two is that Control Commands return feedback to the user, whereas Data Commands are interpreted without comment. The command window expects to receive Control Commands. However, it is possible to enter a Data Command where a Control Command is expected, using the <tt/add/ command prefix. Likewise, a Control Command may be given where data is expected, using the <tt/eval/ prefix, e.g. in a data (or .cf) file. The <tt/real/ (Control) Command expects data commands, but if Control Commands are needed, they need to be preceded with the <tt/eval/ command. See also the previous <bf/starlab/ example. <p> <!-- Before we explain the two types of Commands in more detail, a few other concepts are needed: --> <!-- --> <p> <sect1> Control Commands <p> (see partibrains.c::specks_parse_args) <p> Control Commands are accepted in the Command window, and in some other contexts. Generally, <tt/partiview/ gives a response to every Control Command, reporting the (possibly changed) status. <p> Typically, if parameters are omitted, the current state is reported. <p> Some commands apply to particles in the current group (see Object group commands); others affect global things, such as time or display settings. <p> Data Commands can also be given, if prefixed with <tt/add/. <sect1>I/O Control Commands <p> <descrip> <tag> read <it/specks-file/ </tag> Read a file containing Data Commands (typical suffix <tt/.cf/ or <tt/.speck/). <!-- include NOTYET (would read a file containing control commands) --> <tag> async <it/unix-command/ </tag> Run an arbitrary unix command (invoked via /bin/sh) as a subprocess of <tt/partiview/. Its standard output is interpreted as a stream of control commands. Thus <tt/partiview/ can be driven externally, e.g. to record an animation (using the <tt/snapshot/ command), or to provide additional GUI controls. Several <tt/async/ commands can run concurrently. Examples are given later. Warning: you cannot interrupt a started command, short of hitting ESC to exit partiview. <tag> add <it/data-command/ </tag> Enter a Data Command where a Control Command is expected, e.g. in the text input box. For example, <verb> add 10 15 -1 text blah </verb> adds a new label "blah" at 10 15 -1, or <verb> add kira myrun.out </verb> loads a kira (starlab) output file. <tag> eval <it/control-command/ </tag> Processes that control command just as if the <tt/eval/ prefix weren't there. Provided for symmetry: wherever either a control command or a data command is expected, entering <tt/eval/ <it/control-command/ ensures that it's taken as a control command. <tag> add filepath (data-command) </tag> Determines the list of directories where all data files, color maps, etc. are sought. See the <tt/filepath/ entry under <!-- ref id="datacommands" name="Data Commands" --> Data Commands. </descrip> <sect1>Object Group Control Commands <p> <tt/Partiview/ can load multiple groups of particles, each with independent display settings, colormaps, etc. When more than one group is loaded, the Group Row appears on the GUI, with one toggle-button for each group. Toggling the button turns display of that group on or off. Right-clicking turns the group unconditionally on, and selects that group as the current one for other GUI controls. <p> Many Control Commands apply to the <it/currently selected/ group. <p> Groups always have names of the form g<it/N/ for some small positive <it/N/; each group may also have an alias. <descrip> <tag> g<it/N/ </tag> Select group g<it/N/. Create a new group if it doesn't already exist. <tag> g<it/N/=<it/alias/ </tag> Assign name <it/alias/ to group g<it/N/. Note there must be no blanks around the <tt/=/ sign. <tag> object <it/objectname/ </tag> Likewise, select object <it/objectname/, which may be either an alias name or g<it/N/. <tag> g<it/N/ <it/control-command/ </tag> <tag> object <it/objectname/ <it/control-command/ </tag> Either form may be used as a <it/prefix/ to any control command to act on the specified group, e.g. <tt/object fred poly on/ <tag> gall <it/control-command/ </tag> Invoke the given <it/control-command/ in all groups. For example, to turn display of group 3 on and all others off, use: <tscreen><verb> gall off g3 on </verb></tscreen> <tag> on </tag> <tag> enable </tag> Either one will enable the display of the currently selected group (as it is by default). <tag> off </tag> <tag> disable </tag> Either one will turn off the display of the current group. </descrip> <sect1>View Control commands <p> View commands affect the view; they aren't specific to data groups. <descrip> <tag> fov <it/float/ </tag> Angular field of view (in degrees) in Y-direction. <tag> cen[ter] <it/X Y Z/ [<it/RADIUS/] </tag> <!-- int[erest] <it/X Y Z/ [<it/RADIUS/] --> Set point of interest. This is the center of rotation in <tt/[o]rbit/ and <tt/[r]otate/ modes. Also, in <tt/[o]rbit/ mode, translation speed is proportional to the viewer's distance from this point. The optional <it/RADIUS/ (also set by <tt/censize/) determines the size of the marker crosshair, initially 1 unit. <tag> cen[ter] [<it/X Y Z/ [<it/RADIUS/]] int[erest] [<it/X Y Z/ [<it/RADIUS/]] </tag> Set point of interest. This is the center of rotation in <tt/[o]rbit/ and <tt/[r]otate/ modes. And, in <tt/[o]rbit/ mode, translation speed is proportional to the viewer's distance from this point. The optional <it/RADIUS/ (also set by <tt/censize/) determines the size of the marker crosshair, initially 1 unit. <p> **** why is center/interest commented out in the first example. Originally this command was documented twice, the first one has /interest commented out. <tag> censize [<it/RADIUS/] </tag> Set size of point-of-interest marker. <tag> where <it/(also)/ w </tag> Report the 3-D camera position and forward direction vector. <tag> clip <it/NEAR/ <it/FAR/ </tag> Clipping distances. The computer graphics setup always requires drawing only objects in some finite range of distances in front of the viewpoint. Both values must be strictly positive, and their ratio is limited; depending on the graphics system in use, distant objects may appear to blink if the <it/FAR//<it/NEAR/ ratio exceeds 10000 or so. To set the far clip range without changing the near, use a non-numeric near clip value, e.g. <tt/clip - 1000/. <!-- <tag> ortho </tag> NOTYET --> <tag> jump [<it/X Y Z/] [<it/Rx Ry Rz/] </tag> Get or set the current position (XYZ) and/or viewing (RxRyRz) angle. <tag> readpath </tag> Read a Wavefront (<tt/.wf/) file describing a path through space. <tag> rdata </tag> Synonym for readpath. <tag> play <it/speed/[f] </tag> Play the currently loaded (from <tt/readpath//<tt/rdata/) camera animation path, at <it/speed/ times normal speed, skipping frames as needed to keep up with wall-clock time. (Normal speed is 30 frames per second.) With "f" suffix, displays every <it/speed/-th frame, without regard to real time. <tag> frame [<it/frameno/] </tag> Get or set the current frame the <it/frameno/-th. <tag> update </tag> Ensures the display is updated, as before taking a snapshot. Probably only useful in a stream of control commands from an <tt/async/ subprocess. <tag> winsize [<it/XSIZE/ [<it/YSIZE/]] </tag> <tag> winsize <it/XSIZE/x<it/YSIZE/+<it/XPOS/+<it/YPOS/ </tag> Resize graphics window. With no arguments, reports current size. With one argument, resizes to given width, preserving aspect ratio. With two arguments, reshapes window to that height and width. With complete X geometry specification (no embedded spaces), e.g. <tt/winsize 400x350+20-10/, also sets position of graphics window, with +X and +Y measured from left/top, -X and -Y measured from right/bottom of screen. <tag> detach [full|hide] [<it/+XPOS+YPOS/] </tag> Detach graphics window from GUI control strip and optionally specify position of control strip. With <tt/full/ or <tt/hide/, makes graphics window full-screen with GUI visible or hidden, respectively. With neither <tt/full/ nor <tt/hide/, the graphics window is detached but left at its current size. The <it/+XPOS+YPOS/ is a window position in X window geometry style, so e.g. <tt/detach full -10+5/ places the GUI near the upper right corner of the screen, 10 pixels in from the right and 5 pixels down from the top edge. If you don't mind typing blindly, it's still possible to enter text-box commands even with the controls hidden; press the <it>Tab</it> key before each command to ensure that input focus is in the text box. Use <it>Tab</it><tt/detach full/<it>Enter</it> to un-hide a hidden control strip. <tag> bgcolor <it/R G B/ </tag> Set window background color (three R G B numbers or one grayscale value). <tag> focallen <it/distance/ </tag> Focal length: distance from viewer to a typical object of interest. This affects stereo display (see below) and navigation: the speed of motion in <tt/[t]ranslate/ and <tt/[f]ly/ modes is proportional to this distance. <tag> stereo [on|off|redcyan|glasses|cross|left|right] [<it/separation/] </tag> Stereo display. Also toggled on/off by typing <tt/'s'/ key in graphics window. Where hardware allows it, <tt/stereo glasses/ selects CrystalEyes-style quad-buffered stereo. All systems should be capable of <tt/stereo redcyan/, which requires wearing red/green or red/blue glasses, and of <tt/cross/ (crosseyed), which splits the window horizontally. <tt/left/ and <tt/right/ show just that eye's view, and may be handy for taking stereo snapshots. Useful <it/separation/ values might be 0.02 to 0.1, or -0.02 to -0.1 to swap eyes. See also <tt/focallen/ command, which gives the distance to a typical object of interest: left- and right-eye images of an object at that distance will coincide on the screen. Virtual-world eyes will be separated by distance 2 * <it/focallen * separation/, with convergence angle 2 * <tt/arctan(/<it/separation/<tt/)/. See also the <tt/winsize/ and <tt/detach/ commands for control over graphics window size and placement. Beware: some systems which support hardware ("glasses") stereo also require that the display be set to a stereo-capable video mode. Partiview does not do this automatically. For example, on stereo-capable SGI Irix systems, you may need to type (to a unix shell) <tt>/usr/gfx/setmon -n 1024x768_96s</tt> to allow stereo viewing and something like <tt>/usr/gfx/setmon -n 72</tt> to revert. Otherwise, turning partiview's stereo on will just show the left eye's view -- displacing the viewpoint but nothing else. <tag> snapset [<tt/-n/ <it/FRAMENO/] <it/FILESTEM/ [<it/FRAMENO/] </tag> Set parameters for future <tt/snapshot/ commands. <it/FILESTEM/ may be a printf format string with frame number as argument, e.g. <tt>snapset pix/%04d.ppm</tt>, generating image names of <tt>pix/0000.ppm</tt>, <tt>pix/0001.ppm</tt>, etc. If <it/FILESTEM/ contains no % sign, then <tt/.%03d.ppm.gz/ is appended to it, so <tt>snapset ./pix/fred</tt> yields snapshot images named <tt>./pix/fred.000.ppm.gz</tt> etc. <p> Frame number <it/FRAMENO/ (default 0) increments with each snapshot taken. <p> <tag> snapshot [<it/FRAMENO/] </tag> Capture a snapshot image of the current view. Use <tt/snapset/ to specify the output image name. Default format is <tt/snap.%03d.tif/. <tt/Partiview/ generally invokes the ImageMagick program <tt/convert(1)/, which must be installed and be on the user's $PATH. <tt/Convert/ determines the type of image (jpeg, sgi, bmp, etc.) based on the file suffix. <tt/Convert/ is not needed if the <tt/snapset/ <it/FILESTEM/ ends in <tt/.ppm.gz/ (invokes gzip rather than convert) or <tt/.ppm/ (no external program required). </descrip> <sect1>Particle Display Control Commands <p> These commands affect how particles (in the current group) are displayed. <descrip> <tag> psize <it/scalefactor/ </tag> All particle luminosities (as specified by <tt/lum/ command) are scaled by the product of two factors: a <it/lumvar/-specific factor given by <tt/slum/, and a global factor given by <tt/psize/. So the intrinsic brightness of a particle is <it/value-specified-by-/<tt/lum/ * <it/slum-for-current-lumvar/ * <it/psize-scalefactor/. <tag> slum <it/slumfactor/ </tag> Data-field specific luminosity scale factor, for current choice of <it/lumvar/ as given by the <tt/lum/ command. A <it/slumfactor/ is recorded independently for each data field, so if data fields <tt/mass/ and <tt/energy/ were defined, one might say <tscreen><verb> lum mass slum 1000 lum energy slum 0.25 </verb></tscreen> having chosen each variable's <it/slumfactor/ for useful display, and then freely switch between <tt/lum mass/ and <tt/lum energy/ without having to readjust particle brightness each time. <!-- Just describe "slum" <tag> scale-lum </tag> --> <tag> ptsize <it/minpixels/ <it/maxpixels/ </tag> Specifies the range of <it/apparent/ sizes of points, in pixels. Typical values might be <tt/ptsize 0.1 5/. The graphics system may silently impose an upper limit of about 10 pixels. <!-- DEPRECATED COMMAND <tag> pointsize </tag> --> <tag> polysize [on|off] [a|s|r] </tag> <tag> polylum </tag> <tag> polyminpixels </tag> <tag> polymin <it/minradius/ [<it/maxradius/] </tag> <tag> color </tag> Specify how particles are colored. Generally, a linear function of some data field of each particle becomes an index into a colormap (see <tt/cmap/, <tt/cment/). <descrip> <tag> color <it/colorvar/ [<it/minval maxval/] </tag> Use data field <it/colorvar/ (either a name as set by <tt/datavar/ or a 0-based integer column number) to determine color. Map <it/minval/ to color index 1, and <it/maxval/ to the next-to-last entry in the colormap (<it/Ncmap-2/). The 0th and last (<it/Ncmap-1/) colormap entry are used for out-of-range data values. If <it/minval/ and <it/maxval/ are omitted, the actual range of values is used. <tag> color <it/colorvar/ exact [<it/baseval/] </tag> Don't consider field <it/colorvar/ as a continuous variable; instead, it's integer-valued, and mapped one-to-one with color table slots. Data value <it/N/ is mapped to color index <it/N+baseval/. <tag> color <it/colorvar/ -exact </tag> Once the <tt/exact/ tag is set (for a particular data-field), it's sticky. To interpret that data field as a continuous, scalable variable again, use <tt/-exact/. <tag> color const <it/R G B/ </tag> Show all particles as color <it/R G B/, each value in range 0 to 1, independent of any data fields. </descrip> <tag> lum </tag> Specify how particles' intrinsic luminosity is computed: a linear function of some data field of each particle. <descrip> <tag> lum <it/lumvar/ [<it/minval maxval/] </tag> Map values of data field <it/lumvar/ (<tt/datavar/ name or field number) to luminosity. The (linear) mapping takes field value <it/minval/ to luminosity 0 and <it/maxval/ to luminosity 1.0. <p> If <it/minval/ and <it/maxval/ are omitted, the actual range of values is mapped to the luminosity range 0 to 1. <p> Note that the resulting luminosities are then scaled by the <tt/psize/ and <tt/slum/ scale factors, and further scaled according to distance as specified by <tt/fade/, to compute apparent brightness of points. <tag> lum const <it/L/ </tag> Specify constant particle luminosity <it/L/ independent of any data field values. </descrip> <tag> fade [planar|spherical|linear <it/refdist/|const <it/refdist/] </tag> Determines how distance affects particles' apparent brightness (or "size"). The default <tt/fade planar/ gives 1/r^2 light falloff, with r measured as distance from the view plane. <tt/fade spherical/ is also 1/r^2, but with r measured as true distance from the viewpoint. <tt/fade linear/ <it/refdist/ gives 1/r light falloff -- not physically accurate, but useful to get a limited sense of depth. <tt/fade const/ <it/refdist/ gives constant apparent brightness independent of distance, and may be appropriate for orthographic views. The <it/refdist/ for linear and const modes is that distance <it/r/ at which apparent brightness should match that in the 1/r^2 modes -- a distance to a "typical" particle. <tag> labelminpixels </tag> <tag> labelsize </tag> <tag> lsize </tag> <tag> point[s] [on|off] </tag> Turn display of points on or off. With no argument, toggles display. <tag> poly[gons] [on|off] </tag> Turn display of points on or off. With no argument, toggles display. <tag> texture [on|off] </tag> Turn display of textures on or off. With no argument, toggles. <tag> label[s] [on|off] </tag> Turn display of label text on or off. With no argument, toggles. <tag> txscale <it/scalefactor/ </tag> Scale size of all textures relative to their polygons. A scale factor of 0.5 (default) make the texture square just fill its polygon, if <tt/polysides/ is 4. <tag> polyorivar </tag> Report setting of <tt/polyorivar/ data-command, which see. <tag> texturevar </tag> Report setting of <tt/texturevar/ data-command, which see. <tag> laxes [on|off] </tag> Toggle label axes. When on, and when labels are displayed, shows a <tag> polyside(s) </tag> Number of sides a polygon should have. Default 11, for fairly round polygons. For textured polygons, <tt/polysides 4/ might do as well, and be slightly speedier. <tag> fast </tag> see also <tt/ptsize/ <tag> ptsize <it/minpixels/ [<it/maxpixels/] </tag> Specifies range of apparent (pixel) size of points. Those with computed sizes (based on luminosity and distance) smaller than <it/minpixels/ are randomly (but repeatably) subsampled -- i.e. some fraction of them are not drawn. Those computed to be larger than <it/maxpixels/ are drawn at size <it/maxpixels/. <tag> gamma <it/displaygamma/ </tag> Tells the particle renderer how the display + OpenGL relates image values to visible lightness. You don't need to change this, but may adjust it to minimize the brightness glitches when particles change size. Typical values are <tt/gamma 1/ through <tt/gamma 2.5/ or so. Larger values raise the apparent brightness of dim things. <tag> alpha <it/alpha/ </tag> Get or set the alpha value, in the range 0 to 1; it determines the opacity of polygons. <tag> speed </tag> For time-dependent data, advance datatime by this many time units per wall-clock second. <tag> step [<it/timestep/] </tag> For time-varying data, sets current timestep number. Real-valued times are meaningful for some kinds of data including those from Starlab/kira; for others, times are rounded to nearest integer. If running, <tt/step/ also stops datatime animation. (See <tt/run/.) <tag> step [+|-]<it/deltatimestep/ </tag> If preceded with a plus or minus sign, adds that amount to current time. (note that <tt/fspeed/ has been deprecated) <tag> run </tag> Continue a stopped animation (see also <tt/step/). <tag> tfm [-v] [<it/numbers.../] </tag> Object-to-world transformation. May take 1, 6, 7, 9 or 16 parameters: either <it/scalefactor/, or <it/tx ty tz rx ry rz /<it/scalefactor/>], or 16 numbers for 4x4 matrix, or 9 numbers for 3x3 matrix. See <it/Coordinates and Coordinate Transformations/. With no numeric parameters, reports the current object-to-world transform. Use <tt/tfm -v/ to see the transform and its inverse in several forms. <tag> move [g<it/N/] {on|off} </tag> Normally, navigation modes <tt/[r]otate/ and <tt/[t]ranslate/ just adjust the viewpoint (camera). However, if you turn <tt/move on/, then <tt/[r]otate/ and <tt/[t]ranslate/ move the currently-selected object group instead, e.g. to adjust its alignment relative to other groups. (<tt/[o]rbit/ and <tt/[f]ly/ modes always move the camera.) To indicate that <tt/move/ mode is enabled, the control strip shows the selected group's name in bold italics, as <bf><it>[g3]</it></bf>. Use <tt/move off/ to revert to normal. The <tt/tfm/ command reports the current object-group-to-global-world transformation. <tag> fwd </tag> <tag> datawait on|off </tag> For asynchronously-loaded data (currently only <tt/ieee/ data command), say whether wait for current data step to be loaded. (If not, then keep displaying previous data while loading new.) <tag> cmap <it/filename/ </tag> Load (ascii) filename with RGB values, for coloring particles. The <tt/color/ command selects which data field is mapped to color index and how. Colormaps are text files, beginning with a number-of-entries line and followed by R G B or R G B A entries one per line; see the <it/Colormaps/ section. <tag> vcmap -v <it/fieldname/ <it/filename/ </tag> Load colormap as with <tt/cmap/ command. But use this colormap only when the given data field is selected for coloring. Thus the <tt/cmap/ color map applies to all data fields for which no <tt/vcmap/ has ever been specified. <tag> cment <it/colorindex/ [<it/R G B/] </tag> Report or set that colormap entry. <tag> rawdump <it/dump-filename/ </tag> All particle attributes (not positions though) are written to a <it/dump-filename/. Useful for debugging. Warning: it will happily overwrite an existing file with that name. </descrip> <sect1>Particle subsetting & statistics <p> <descrip> <tag> clipbox ... </tag> see <tt/cb/ below. <tag> cb .... </tag> Display only a 3D subregion of the data -- the part lying within the clipbox. <descrip> <tag>cb <it/xmin ymin zmin xmax ymax zmax/ </tag> <p> Specified by coordinate ranges. Note only spaces are used to separate the 6 numbers. <tag>cb <it/xcen,ycen,zcen xrad,yrad,zrad/ </tag> Specified by center and "radius" of the box. Note no spaces after the commas! <tag>cb <it/xmin,xmax ymin,ymax zmin,zmax/ </tag> Specified by coordinate ranges. <tag>cb <tt/off/ </tag><p> Disable clipping. The entire dataset is again visible. <tag>cb <tt/on/ </tag><p> Re-enable a previously defined clipbox setting. It will also display the clipbox again <tag>cb <tt/hide/ </tag><p> Hide the clipbox, but still discard objects whose centers lie outside it. </descrip> Note this command does not toggle clipping if no arguments given (that would be handy and more in line with similar commands). If no arguments given, it reports the current clipbox. <tag> thresh </tag> Display a subset of particles, chosen by the value of some data field. Each <tt/thresh/ command overrides settings from previous commands, so it cannot be used to show unions or intersections of multiple criteria. For that, see the <tt/only/ command. However, unlike <tt/only/, the <tt/thresh/ criterion applies to time-varying data. <descrip> <tag>thresh <it/field/ <it/minval/ <it/maxval/ </tag> Display only those particles where <it/minval/ <= field <it/field/ <= <it/maxval/. The <it/field/ may be given by name (as from <tt/datavar/) or by field number. <tag>thresh <it/field/ <tt/</<it/maxval/ </tag> <p> <tag>thresh <it/field/ <tt/>/<it/minval/ </tag> Show only particles where <it/field/ is <= or >= the given threshold. <tag>thresh [off|on]</tag> Disable or re-enable a previously specified threshold. </descrip> <tag> only= <it/datafield/ <it/value/ <it/minvalue-maxvalue/ <<it/value/ ><it/value/ ... </tag> <tag> only+ <it/datafield/ <it/value/ <it/minvalue-maxvalue/ <<it/value/ ><it/value/ ... </tag> <tag> only- <it/datafield/ <it/value/ <it/minvalue-maxvalue/ <<it/value/ ><it/value/ ... </tag> Scans particles (in the current timestep only!), finding those where <it/datafield/ has value <it/value/, or has a value in range <it/minvalue/ <= value <= <it/maxvalue/, or whatever. Multiple value-ranges may be specified to select the union of several sets. The resulting set of particles is assigned to (<tt/only=/), added to (<tt/only+/) or subtracted from (<tt/only-/) the <tt/thresh/ selection-set. Also display just particles in that selection-set, as if <tt/see thresh/ had been typed. The net effect is illustrated by these examples: <descrip> <tag>only= type 1-3 5</tag> Show only particles of type 1, 2, 3 or 5. <tag>only- mass <2.3 >3.5</tag> After the above command, shows only the subset of type 1/2/3/5 particles AND have mass between 2.3 and 3.5. (Note that to take the intersection of two conditions, you must subtract the complement of the latter one. Maybe some day there'll be an <tt/only&/. </descrip> <tag> see <tt/selexpr/ </tag> Show just those particles in the selection-set <tt/selexpr/. Predefined set names are <tt/all/, <tt/none/, <tt/thresh/ and <tt/pick/, and other names may be defined by the <tt/sel/ command. The default is <tt/see all/. Using the <tt/thresh/ or <tt/only/ commands automatically switch to displaying <tt/see thresh/. Note that you can see the complement of a named set, e.g. all except the <tt/thresh/-selected objects, with <tt/see -thresh/. <tag> sel <tt/selname = selexpr/ </tag> Compute a logical combination of selection-sets and assign them to another such set. The set membership is originally assigned by <tt/thresh/ or <tt/only/ commands. Yeah, I know this doesn't make sense. Need a separate section to document selection-sets. <tag> sel <tt/selexpr/ </tag> Count the number of particles in the selection-set <tt/selexpr/. <tag> clearobj </tag> Erase all particles in this group. Useful for reloading on the fly. <tag> every <it/N/ </tag> Display a random subset (every <it/N/-th) of all particles. E.g. <tt/every 1/ shows all particles, <tt/every 2/ shows about half of them. Reports current subsampling factor, and the current total number of particles. <tag> hist <it/datafield/ [-n <it/nbuckets/] [-l] [-c] [-t] [<it/minval/] [<it/maxval/] </tag> Generates a (numerical) histogram of values of <it/datafield/, which may be a named field (as from <tt/datavar/) or a field index. Divides the value range (either <it/minval/..<it/maxval/ or the actual range of values for that field) into <it/nbuckets/ equal buckets (11 by default). Uses logarithmically-spaced intervals if <tt/-l/ (so long as the data range doesn't include zero). If a clipbox is defined, use <tt/-c/ to count only particles within it. If a <tt/thresh/ or <tt/only/ subset is defined, use <tt/-t/ to count only the chosen subset. <tag> bound [w] </tag> Reports 3D extent of the data. With <tt/w/, reports it in world coordinates, otherwise in object coordinates. <tag> datavar </tag> <tag> dv </tag> Report names and value ranges (over all particles in current group) of all named data fields. </descrip> <sect1>Boxes <p> <descrip> <tag> showbox <it/list of integer box level numbers.../ </tag> <tag> hidebox <it/list of integer box level numbers.../ </tag> <tag> box[es] [off|on|only] </tag> Turn box display off or on; or display boxes but hide all particles. <tag> boxcmap <it/filename/ </tag> Color boxes using that colormap. Each box's level number (set by <tt/-l/ option of <tt/box/ data-command, default 0) is the color index. <tag> boxcment <it/colorindex/ [<it/R G B/] </tag> Get or set the given box-colormap index. E.g. <tt/boxcment 0/ reports the color of boxes created with no <tt/-l/ specified. <tag> boxlabel [on|off] </tag> Label boxes by id number (set by <tt/-n/ option of <tt/box/ data-command). <tag> boxaxes [on|off] </tag> Toggle or set box axes display mode. <tag> boxscale [float] [on|off] </tag> <tag> gobox <it/boxnumber/ </tag> <tag> goboxscale </tag> <tag> menu fmenu </tag> <p> <tscreen><verb> BEGIN CAVEMENU pos P1 P2 wall P1 hid [P1] show [P1] h [P1] demandfps [P1] font help ? END CAVEMENU </verb></tscreen> <p> <tag> datascale </tag> </descrip> <!--------------------------------------------------------------------------- --> <sect1> <!-- label id="datacommands" --> Data commands </> <p> (see also partibrains.c::specks_read) <p> Data Commands can be placed in a data file. Lines starting with <tt/#/ will be skipped. <p> Control Commands can also be given, if prefixed with the <tt/eval/ command. <descrip> <tag> read <it/file/ </tag> read a <tt/speck/ formatted file. Recursive, commands can nest. (strtok ok??) Note that <tt/read/ is also a Control Command, doing exactly the same thing. <tag> include <it/file/ </tag> read a <tt/speck/ formatted file. <tag> ieee [-t time] <it/file/ </tag> read a IEEEIO formatted file, with optional timestep number (0 based). Support for this type of data must be explicitly compiled into the program. <tag> kira <it/file/ </tag> read a <tt/kira/ formatted file. See the <tt/kiractl/ Control Command to modify the looks of the objects. <tag> setenv name value </tag> Add (or change) a named variable of the environment variables space of partiview. Enviroment variables, like in the normal unix shell, can be referred to by prepending their name with a $. <it/Note there probably is not an unsetenv command/. <tag> object <it/gN=ALIAS/ </tag> Defines/Selects a particular group number (N=1,2,3....) to an ALIAS. In command mode you can use <tt/gN=ALIAS/. Any data following this command will now belong to this group. <tag> object <it/ObjectName/ </tag> Select an existing group. Following data will now belong to this group. <tag> sdbvars <it/var/ </tag> Choose which data fields to extract from binary sdb files (any of: <tt/mMcrogtxyzSn/) for subsequent <tt/sdb/ commands. <tag> sdb [-t time] <it/file/ </tag> Read an SDB (binary) formatted file, with optional timestep number. (Default time is latest <tt/datatime/, or 0.) <tag> pb [-t time] <it/file/ </tag> Read a <tt/.pb/ (binary) particle file, with optional timestep number. (Default time is latest <tt/datatime/, or 0.) A <tt/.pb/ file contains (all values 32-bit integer or 32-bit IEEE float): <enum> <item>magic number, 0xFFFFFF98 (int32) <item>byte offset of first particle (int32) <item>number of attributes (int32) <item>sequence of null-terminated attribute name strings, attributename0 \0 attributename1 \0 ... <item>possibly some pad bytes, enough to reach the specified first-particle file offset <item>sequence of particle records, each (number-of-attributes + 4)*4 bytes long: <enum> <item>particle-id (int32) <item>particle X, Y, Z (3 float32's) <item>particle attributes (number-of-attributes float32's) </enum> ending at the end of the file (i.e. there's no particle-count field). </enum> Either big- or little-endian formats are accepted; the value of the magic number determines endianness of all values in that file. <tag> box[es] <it/..../ </tag> Draw a box, using any of the following formats: <p> <descrip> <tag> <tt/xmin ymin zmin xmax ymax zmax/ </tag> <p> <tag> <tt/xmin,xmax ymin,ymax zmin,zmax/ </tag><p> <tag> <tt/xcen,ycen,zcen xrad,yrad,zrad/ </tag><p> <tag> <tt/[-t time] [-n boxno] [-l level] xcen,ycen,zcen xrad,yrad,zrad / </tag><p> </descrip> <tt/level/ determines color. <tag> <tt/mesh/ [<tt/-t/ <it/txno/] [<tt/-c/ <it/colorindex/] [<tt/-s/ <it/style/] </tag> Draw a quadrilateral mesh, optionally colored or textured. Following the <bf/mesh/ line, provide a line with the mesh dimensions: <screen> nu nv </screen> Following this comes the list of <it/nu/*<it/nv/ mesh vertices, one vertex (specified by several blank-separated numbers) per line. (Blank lines and comments may be interspersed among them.) Note that the mesh connections are implicit: vertex number i*nu+j is adjacent to (i-1)*nu+j, (i+1)*nu+j, i*nu+(j-1), and i*nu+(j+1). Each vertex line has three or five numbers: the first three give its 3-D position, and if a <tt/-t/ texture was specified, then two more fields give its u and v texture coordinates. <p> Options: <descrip> <tag> <tt/-t/ <it/txno/ </tag> Apply texture number <it/txno/ to surface. In this case, each mesh vertex should also include u and v texture coordinates. <tag> <tt/-c/ <it/colorindex/ </tag> Color surface with color from integer cmap entry <it/colorindex/. <tag> <tt/-s/ <it/style/ </tag> Drawing style: <descrip> <tag> <it/solid/ </tag> filled polygonal surface (default) <tag> <it/wire/ </tag> just edges <tag> <it/point/ </tag> just points (one per mesh vertex) </descrip> </descrip> <tag> <it/Xcen Ycen Zcen/ ellipsoid <it/[options]... [transformation]/ </tag> Draw an ellipsoid, specified by: <descrip> <tag> <tt/Xcen Ycen Zcen/ </tag> Center position in world coordinates <tag> <tt/-c/ <it/colorindex/ </tag> Integer color index (default -1 => white) <tag> <tt/-s/ <it/style/ </tag> Drawing style: <descrip> <tag> <it/solid/ </tag> filled polygonal surface (default) <tag> <it/plane/ </tag> 3 ellipses: XY, XZ, YZ planes <tag> <it/wire/ </tag> latitude/longitude ellipses <tag> <it/point/ </tag> point cloud: one per lat/lon intersection </descrip> <tag> <tt/-r/ <it/Xradius/[,<it/Yradius/,<it/Zradius/] </tag> Radius (for sphere) or semimajor axes (for ellipsoid) <tag> <tt/-n/ <it/nlat[,nlon]/ </tag> Number of latitude and longitude divisions. Relevant even for <it/plane/ style, where they determine how finely the polygonal curves approximate circles. Default <it/nlon/ = <it/nlat//2 + 1. <tag> <it/transformation/ </tag> Sets the spatial orientation of the ellipsoid. May take any of three forms: <descrip> <tag> (nothing) </tag> If absent, the ellipsoid's coordinate axes are the same as the world axes for the group it belongs to. <tag> 9 blank-separated numbers </tag> A 3x3 transformation matrix T from ellipsoid coordinates to world coordinates, in the sense Pworld = Pellipsoid * T + [Xcen, Ycen, Zcen]. <tag> 16 blank-separated numbers </tag> A 4x4 transformation matrix, as above but for the obvious changes. </descrip> </descrip> <tag> waveobj [-time <it/timestep/] [-static] [-texture <it/number/] [-c <it/colorindex/] [-s <it/style/] <it/file.obj/ </tag> Load a Wavefront-style .obj model. Material properties are ignored; the surface is drawn in white unless <tt/-c/ <it/colorindex/ in which case it's drawn using that color-table color. Also if <tt/-texture/ (alias <tt/-tx/) is supplied, the surface is textured using whatever texture coordinates are supplied in the .obj file. The model is displayed at all times only if marked <tt/-static/; otherwise it's displayed only at the time given by <tt/-time/ <it/timestep/ or by the most recent <it/datatime/. A subset of the .obj format is accepted: <descrip> <tag>v <it/X Y Z/</tag> -- vertex position <tag>vt <it/U V/</tag> -- vertex texture coordinates <tag>vn <it/NX NY NZ/</tag> -- vertex normal <tag>f <it/V1 V2 V3 .../</tag> -- face, listing just position indices for each vertex. The first <tt/v/ line in the .obj file has index 1, etc. <tag>f <it>V1/T1 V2/T2 V3/T3 ...</it></tag> -- face, listing position and texture coordinates for each vertex of the face. <tag>f <it>V1/T1/N1 V2/T2/N2 V3/T3/N3 ...</it></tag> -- face, listing position, texture-coordinate, and normal indices for each vertex. </descrip> Note that material properties (mtl) are ignored. Waveobj models are colored according to the <tt/-c/ <it/colorindex/ option (integer index into the current <tt/cmap/ colormap), or white if no <tt/-c/ is used. If texturing is enabled -- if the .obj model contains <tt/vt/ entries, and the <tt/-texture/ option appears, and that numbered texture exists -- then the given texture color multiplies or replaces the <tt/-c/ color, according to the texture options. <tag> tfm [camera] <it/numbers.../ </tag> Object-to-world transformation. May take 1, 6, 7, 9 or 16 numbers: either <it/scalefactor/ or <it/tx ty tz rx ry rz /[it/scalefactor/] or 16 numbers for 4x4 matrix, or 9 numbers for 3x3 matrix. See <it/Coordinates and Coordinate Transformations/. Normally the transform is to world coordinates; but with optional <tt/camera/ prefix, the object's position is specified relative to the camera, useful to place legends in a fixed position on the screen. In camera coordinates, (0,0,0) is the viewpoint, x=y=0 at screen center, and negative z extends forward. Try for example <verb> tfm camera -3 -3 -20 0 0 0 0 0 0 text -size 20 Legend </verb> <tag> eval <it/command/ </tag> execute a Control Command. <tag> feed <it/command/ </tag> Synonym for <tt/eval/. <tag> VIRDIR <it/command/ </tag> Synonym for <tt/eval/. <!-- DEPRECATED COMMAND <tag> ignorefirst, ignorepgc </tag> --> <tag> filepath <it/path/ </tag> A colon-separated list of directories in which datafiles, color maps, etc. will be searched for. If preceded with the <tt/+/ symbol, this list will be appended to the current <it/filepath/. <tag> polyorivar <it/indexno/ </tag> By default, when polygons are drawn, they're parallel to the screen plane -- simple markers for the points. It's sometimes useful to give each polygon a fixed 3-D orientation (as for disk galaxies). To do this, provide 6 consecutive data fields, representing two 3-D orthogonal unit vectors which span the plane of the disk. Then use <tt/polyorivar /<it/indexno/ giving the data field number of the first of the 6 fields. The vectors define the X and Y directions on the disk, respectively -- relevant if texturing is enabled. <p> Actually, unit vectors aren't essential; making them different lengths yields non-circular polygonal disks. <p> If <tt/polyorivar/ is specified for the group, but some polygons should still lie in the screen plane, use values <tt/9 9 9 9 9 9/ for those polygons. <tag> texture [-aiAOlmnMDB] <it/txno file.sgi/ </tag> <descrip> <tag> -a(lpha) </tag> A single-channel image would normally be used as luminance data. With <tt/-a/, the image is taken as opacity data instead (GL_ALPHA texture format). <tag> -i(ntensity) </tag> For 1- or 3-channel images, compute the intensity of each pixel and use it to form an alpha (opacity) channel. <tag> -A(dd) </tag> Use additive blending. This texture will add to, not obscure, the brightness of whatever lies behind it (i.e. whatever is drawn later). <tag> -O(ver) </tag> Use "over" compositing. This texture will obscure features lying behind it according to alpha values at each point. <!-- <tag> -l(inear) </tag> <p> <tag> -m(ipmap) </tag> <p> <tag> -n(earest) </tag> <p> --> <tag> -M(odulate) </tag> Multiply texture brightness/color values by the colormap-determined color of each particle. <tag> -D(ecal) </tag> <p> The textured polygon's color is determined entirely by the texture, suppressing any colormapped color. <tag> -B(lend) </tag> <p> Probably not very useful. </descrip> <tag> texturevar <it/field/ </tag> If polygon-drawing and texturing are turned on, use the given <it/field/ (datavar name or number) in each particle to select which texture (if any) to draw on its polygon. <tag> coord <it/name ... 16 world-to-coord tfm floats (GL order)/ </tag> <tag> dataset <it/indexno datasetname/ </tag> Give names to multiple datasets in IEEEIO files (read with <tt/ieee/ command). <it/indexno/ is an integer, 0 being the first dataset. <tag> datavar <it/indexno name [minval maxval]/ </tag> Name the variable in data field <it/indexno/. The first data field has <it/indexno/ 0. If provided, <it/minval maxval/ supply the nominal range of that data variable; some control commands (<tt/lum/, <tt/color/) need to know the range of data values, and will use this instead of measuring the actual range. <tag> datatime <it/time/ </tag> Label subsequent data with this <it/time/ (a non-negative integer). <tag> <it/Xpos Ypos Zpos Var0 .... / </tag> These lines, with XYZ positions in the first 3 columns, will make up the bulk of a typical dataset. The 4th and subsequent columns contain the values of the datavariables as named with the <bf/datavar/ commands. Note that data variable (field) numbers are 0-based. </descrip> <!---------------------------------------------------------------------- --> <sect1> Kira/Starlab </> <p> To read Kira output, in human-readable or binary <bf/tdyn/ form, use the ``<tt/kira/ <it/kirafilename/'' data-command. <p> <sect2> Kira particle attributes </> <p> The particles read in have the following attributes: <descrip> <tag> id </> positive integer worldline index for single stars (matching the id in the kira stream). For non-leaf (center-of-mass) tree nodes, <tt/id/ is a negative integer. <tag> mass </> Mass, in solar mass units (see ``kira mscale'' control command). <tag> nclump </> Number of stars in this particle's subtree. 1 for isolated stars, 2 for binaries, etc. <tag> Tlog </> base-10 log of temperature (K) <tag> Lum </> Luminosity in solar-mass units. (Note this is linear, not log luminosity.) <tag> stype </> Stellar type code (small integer). The [bracketed] message reported when picking (button-2 or p key) on a star gives the corresponding human-readable stellar type too. <tag> ismember </> Is this star still a member of (bound to) the cluster? <tag> rootid </> id of root of subtree. For single stars, rootid = id. <tag> treeaddr </> bit-encoded location of star in subtree. <tag> ringsize </> 0 for stars. For nonleaf nodes, this is the semimajor axis or instantaneous separation (according to ``<tt/kira sep/''). This field isn't multiplied by the scale factor given in <tt/kira sep/; it gives the actual distance in kira units. <tag> sqrtmass </> Square root of mass/Msun. Might be useful for luminosity scaling. <tag> mu </> Mass ratio for center-of-mass nodes. Zero for stars. </descrip> <p> <sect2> Hertzsprung-Russell diagram </> <p> The H-R diagram can be invoked via the <tt/More.../ menu (upper left) or by the <tt/kira hrdiag on/ control command. Axes for this plot are log temperature (initial range from 5 to 3) and log luminosity (initial range -4 to 6). Ranges may be changed with the <tt/kira hrdiag range/ command or with keystrokes. <p> Keystroke commands in the H-R window: <descrip> <tag> b/B </> Adjust the (b)rightness (dot size) of the dots plotted for each star. Small b brightens (enlarges); capital B shrinks. <tag> a/A </> Adjust (a)lpha (opacity) of dots plotted for each star. If many stars coincide in H-R, their brightnesses add. Thus reducing opacity may help clarify the relative L-T space densities, if there are many stars. <tag> v/V </> Zoom out (v) or in (V) by 33%. The point under the cursor becomes the center of the view. </descrip> <sect2> kira control commands </> <p> Viewing control options for kira/Starlab formatted data that have been read in with the <tt/kira/ Data Command. All control commands begin with <tt/kira/ too. <descrip> <tag> kira node {on|off|root} </tag> Show or hide center-of-mass nodes for multiple stars. With <tt/on/, show CM nodes for each level in a binary tree. With <tt/root/, show only the top-level CM node for each multiple. <tag> kira ring {on|off|root} </tag> Show circles around multiple stars; <tt/on/ and <tt/root/ as above. <tag> kira tree {on|off|cross|tick} [<it/tickscale/] </tag> <p> Show lines connecting pairs of stars at each binary-tree level in a multiple group. With <tt/cross/, also show a perpendicular line -- a tick mark -- which crosses at the CM point, and whose length is <tt/tickscale/ (default 0.5) times the true separation of the pair. With <tt/tick/, just show the tick-mark with no connecting line. <tag> kira size [sep|semi] [<it/ringscalefactor/] </tag> Determines 3-D size of circles when <tt/kira ring on/. With <tt/kira size sep/, ring diameter is scalefactor * instanteous separation. With <tt/kira size semi/, ring radius is scalefactor * a (the semimajor axis of the two-body system, or <tt/|a|/ for hyperbolic orbits). Using <tt/semi/ gives typically more stable-looking rings, though they will pop if they become marginally (un-)bound. Default: <tt/kira size semi 1.5/. <tag>kira scale <it/ringscalefactor/</tag> Synonym for <tt/kira size/ above. <tag> kira span <it/minpix/ <it/maxpix/ </tag> Sets screen-space (pixel) size limits on rings. They'll never get smaller than radius <it/minpix/ nor larger than <it/maxpix/, regardless of true 3-D size. Thus even vanishingly tight binaries can always be visibly marked. Default: <tt/kira span 2 50/. <tag> kira track <it/id/|on|off </tag> As particle <it/id/ moves through time, move the viewpoint in the same way, so that (if you don't move the view by navigation) the particle remains fixed in apparent position. <tt/kira track off/ disables tracking, and <tt/kira track on/ re-enables it. Use the <tt/p/ key or mouse button 2 to pick a particle (or CM node if <tt/kira node on/) to see its numeric <it/id/. Transient center-of-mass nodes (shown if <tt/kira node on/) can be tracked while they exist. <tag> kira mscale <it/massscalefactor/[!] </tag> Set/check the mass scale factor. Starlab dynamical mass values are multiplied by this factor for reporting to the user. Normally <it/massscalefactor/ should equal the initial cluster mass in solar-mass units. For some input files, starlab can determine what was specified in the original kira run. If so, ``kira mscale <it/number/'' will be ignored unless <it/number/ ends with an exclamation point (!). So with no <tt/!/, the user (or .cf script) provides a default value; use <tt/!/ to override the original mass scale. <tag> kira int <it/seldest/ [= <it/selsrc/] </tag> Track interactions between particles. As the cluster evolves, whenever any star matching selection-expression <it/selsrc/ encounters (is a member of the same kira tree as) another particle, then the other particle is added to the <it/seldest/ set. If <it/seldest/ and <it/selsrc/ are the same (or if ``= <it/selsrc/'' is omitted), then <tt/kira int/ computes the transitive closure of the interaction set. Otherwise, only stars that encounter members of the initial <it/selsrc/ set become members of the <it/seldest/ set. Example: <descrip> <tag> click on some star </tag> The clicked-on star(s) become members of the <tt/pick/ set. <tag> sel x = pick </tag> Save a copy in the new set named <tt/x/. <tag> kira int x </tag> Accumulate encounters in the set <tt/x/. <tag> emph x </tag> Increase brightness of members of <tt/x/. <tag> kira trail x </tag> Extend trails from these set members. </descrip> <tag> kira trail <it/selexpression/|off </tag> Leave trails behind particles selected by <it/selexpression/ (see the <tt/sel/ command). As (dynamical) time passes, for each display update, one sample point is added to the trail for each selected particle. (If you reverse the direction of time, the trails will fold back on themselves.) Some examples: <descrip> <tag> kira trail all </tag> Makes trails grow behind all particles (including CM nodes, if they're displayed) <tag> kira trail pick </tag> Clicking on a star will make a trail grow behind it. If several stars are within picking range (under the cursor), trails will grow behind each of them. <tag> thresh -s big mass > 1.5 </tag> threshold when masses are larger than 1.5 <tag> kira trail big </tag> These two commands (a) select all stars exceeding 1.5 solar masses and (b) extend trails behind them. </descrip> <tag> kira trail clear </tag> Erase current trails, but let them continue to accumulate as time passes. <tag> kira maxtrail <it/nsamples/ </tag> Set how many time-points are kept for each particle's trail, initially 50. <tag> kira hrdiag on|off </tag> toggle to turn HD Diagram on or off. Initially off. <tag> kira hrdiag range <it/logTleft logTright logLbottom logLtop/ </tag> set limits on the HD Diagram axes. </descrip> <!---------------------------------------------------------------------- --> <sect1> Textures </> <p> To make polygons be textured: <itemize> <item>Use a series of <tt/texture/ data-commands to provide a table of textures, each named by a small integer <it/texture-index/; <item>Create a data field in each particle whose value is the <it/texture-index/ for that particle's polygon <item>Use data-command <tt/texturevar /<it/fieldno/ to specify which data field that is. <item>Use control commands (<tt/poly/, <tt/polylumvar/, <tt/polysize/) to enable drawing polygons and textures, and to give the polygons nonzero size. <item>Possibly use control command <tt/polysides/ to specify 4-sided polygons -- a bit faster to draw than default 11-gons. </itemize> It doesn't matter whether the texture-index data field is given a datavar name. <p> For each particle, if the value of its <it/texturevar/'th field either (a) doesn't match the value in some <tt/texture/ command or (b) the file named in that <tt/texture/ command couldn't be read, then its polygon is drawn as if texturing were disabled. <!---------------------------------------------------------------------- --> <sect1> Coordinates and Coordinate Transformations <p> Matrices as for the <bf/tfm/ command are intended to be multiplied by an object-coordinate row vector on the left, so that 4x4 matrices specify a translation in their 13th through 15th entries. Generally they're in the sense of an object-or-camera-to-world transform. The six- or seven-number transforms (<it/tx ty tz rx ry rz /[it/scalefactor/], as accepted by the <bf/tfm/ and <bf/jump/ commands) are interpreted as <it/Pworld = Pobject * scalefactor * /rotY(<it/ry/) * rotX(<it/rx/) * rotZ(<it/rz/) * translate(<it/tx,ty,tz/) <sect1> Colormap Files <p> Colormap files, as read by the <tt/cmap/ and <tt/vcmap/ commands, are line-oriented text files. Blank lines are ignored, as are <tt/#/ comments. The first nonblank, non-comment line gives the colormap <it/size/ (number of entries). Later lines may have the form <verb> <it/R G B/ </verb> giving red, green, and blue, each in the range 0 .. 1. Typically there will be <it/size/ of these lines. However the colormap need not be written sequentially; a line like <verb> <it/colorindex/: <it/R G B/ </verb> places that RGB value at that <it/colorindex/, in the range 0 .. <it/size/-1. Later <it/R G B/ lines are assigned to <it/colorindex+1/, <it/colorindex+2/ and so on. Also, <verb> <it/colorindex/ := <it/oldcolorindex/ </verb> copies the (previously-assigned) RGB value from <it/oldcolorindex/ and assigns it to <it/colorindex/. <!---------------------------------------------------------------------- --> <sect> Viewing Window Keyboard Shortcuts <p> Commands that you can give from within the viewing window are all single keystroke commands, often combined with moving the mouse. <tscreen><verb> TAB change focus to command window for Control Commands S/s toggle STEREO mode (need blue/red glasses :-) modes: mono redcyan crosseyed glasses See also the 'stereo' View Command > single frame forward stepping, in time animation mode < single frame backward stepping, in time animation mode Button-N various translation/rotation/zoom, depending on mode (fly/orbit/rot/tran) SHIFT + Button-N modifier to the usual Button-N action, to have more fine control CTRL + Button-N modifier to orbit-mode, e.g. to do translations instead of rotations playmodes: s playnow l loop (rock) f,e playevery=1 r,t playevery=0 Gview.cpp : Fl_Gview::handle() cw reset camera position p identify nearest object under mouse cursor P pick that object as the new origin o ORBIT mode f FLY mode r ROTATE mode t TRANSLATE mode O toggle perspective mode v make field of view larger V make field of view smaller ^v toggle debug output @ report viewpoint position = show object-to-world, world-to-object 4x4 matrices (precede by object name, e.g. "c=", "g3=") ESC exit PrintScreen Take image snapshot of current view < > Step backwards/forwards in dynamical time (numeric prefix sets time step) { } Animate backwards/forwards in dynamical time ~ Fermionic dynamical-time animation toggle: cycle between stop/forward/stop/backward/... z Z Halve/double animation speed (dyn units/sec) (numeric prefix sets animation speed) </verb></tscreen> <!--------------------------------------------------------------------------- --> <sect> Partiview and NEMO <p> The program <tt/snapspecks/ converts a NEMO snapshot to specks format that can be read in directly by partiview. The default viewing variables are <tt/x,y,z,m/, but you can add and changed them by using the <bf/options=/ keyword. In fact, arbitrary <it/bodytrans/ expressions can be used for output. In the following example a 32-body Plummer sphere is created, which is then given a power-law mass spectrum (with slope -2) between 0.5 and 10 mass units, and animated: <tscreen><code> % mkplummer - 32 |\ snapmass - - massname='n(m)' masspars=p,-2 massrange=0.5,10 |\ hackcode1 - run1.dat % snapspecks run1.dat > % partiview % cat read eval labels off eval lum lum 0 1 eval polylumvar point-size .1 area texturevar 4 eval psize 5000 eval slum 5 eval every 1 </code></tscreen> <!--------------------------------------------------------------------------- --> <sect> Tips <p> During animation the trip/back buttons can effectively be used to return to a point in time where you want to return back to if you wanted to browse around some specific point in time. <p> You can spend most of the time moving in [o]rbit mode. Left-button moves around chosen center; control-left pans around the sky. As opposed to switching to 't' mode to zoom and translate, you can also use SHIFT-Mouse-1 and SHIFT-Mouse-3 to achieve the same from the other ('o', 'f') modes. <p> To make an animation, create an executable shell script <tt/movie1/ with for example the following commands: <tscreen><code> #! /bin/csh -f # echo step 0 echo update echo snapshot echo step 0.01 echo update echo snapshot echo step 0.02 echo update echo snapshot echo step 0.03 echo update echo snapshot ... </code></tscreen> the Control Command <tt/async movie1/, and it will create files <tt/snap.000.sgi, snap.001.sgi, ..../ and already with <tt/xv/ a movie can be shown: <tscreen><code> xv -wait 0 snap.???.sgi </code></tscreen> To make animated GIFs, here are some examples with common software, all with a default 0.1 sec delay between frames. Some animation software (e.g. xanim) can change these: <tscreen><code> convert -delay 10 -loop 0 snap.???.sgi try1.gif gifsicle -d 10 snap.???.gif > try2.gif </code></tscreen> The script will run asynchronously within partiview, so if you then use the mouse to change orientation or zoom, these actions (minus the location of the mouse of course) will be nicely recorded in the snapshots. <!--------------------------------------------------------------------------- --> <sect> Bugs, Features and Limitations <p> Here is a list of known peculiarities, some of them bugs, others just features and others limitations, and there is always that class of things I simply have not understood how it works. <!--------------------------------------------------------------------------- --> <sect1> Limitations w.r.t. VirDir: <p> <enum> <item> cannot set an auto-motion, as we can in the dome, although one could of course load a path and move through the dataset :-) I was able to make a path (*.wf) file and load that though. Now mostly solved via the <tt/Inertia/ toggle under the <tt/More/ button from the Top Row Window. </enum> <!--------------------------------------------------------------------------- --> <sect1> Some notes for newcomers to VirDir <p> Although starting <tt/virdir/ is very similar to <tt/partiview/, <code> % parti or, % virir </code> the seasoned <tt/partiview/ user will need to relearn a few modes to get used to <tt/virdir/. In particular, at AMNH starting virdir will probably cause your console screen (which is normally panel#1 on the dome) to go dark with no visible command prompt. To regain control, type the commands (blindly) <tscreen><code> raise fly idle </code></tscreen> which will put <tt/virdir/ in fly and animation mode. <p> Here are some important modes, make sure you keep the mouse in the console window. It is easy to get it lost in any of the other 6 displays which are only visible on the dome. <enum> <item> Pushing the Left and Right mouse buttons simultaneously will send the display to the HOME position. <item> Left mouse button will toggle the Pause mode in animate/fly mode. <item> Holding the Ctrl-button down while moving the mouse will bring your point of interest into view <item> Holding the Alt-button down while moving the mouse will rotate around your point of interest. <item> The 'p' key <item> The middle mouse button toggles Head display vs. Center display. <item> Holding the Shift-button down while moving the mouse will change the available screen-space (works like a zoom). </enum> <sect> Glossary <p> <enum> <item> group: particles can be grouped with the <tt/object/ command. If multiple groups exist, a separate <tt/Group/ row will be activated automatically. <item> data command, not to be confused with control command <item> control command, not to be confused with data command <item> </enum> </article>