CALC COMMAND LINE

**-h**- Print a help message. This option implies
**-q**. This is equivalent to the calc command**help help**. **-q**- Disable the use of the
**$CALCRC**startup library scripts.

Without **calc_cmd**s, **calc** operates interactively.
If one or more **calc_cmd**s are given on the command line, **calc** will execute
them and exit.

Normally on startup, **calc** attempts to execute a collection
of library scripts. The environment variable **$CALCRC** (if non-existent then
a compiled in value) contains a **:** separated list of startup library scripts.
No error conditions are produced if these startup library scripts are not
found.

Filenames are subject to ‘‘~’’ expansion (see below). The environment
variable **$CALCPATH** (if non-existent then a compiled in value) contains a
**:** separated list of search directories. If a file does not begin with **/**,
**~** or **./**, then it is searched for under each directory listed in the **$CALCPATH**.
It is an error if no such readable file is found.

For more information use the following calc commands:

help usage

help help

help environment

OVERVIEW

**Calc** is arbitrary precision arithmetic system
that uses a C-like language. **Calc** is useful as a calculator, an algorithm
prototyped and as a mathematical research tool. More importantly, **calc** provides
one with a machine independent means of computation.

A rich set of builtin
functions is provided. A number of library scripts are also provided because
they are useful and to serve as examples of the **calc** language.

One may further
extend **calc** permits further thru to use of calc library scripts. Written
in the same C-like language, library scripts may be read in and executed
during a **calc** session.

Internally calc represents numeric values as fractions reduced to their lowest terms. The numerators and denominators of these factions may grow to arbitrarily large values. Numeric values read in are automatically converted into rationals. The user need not be aware of this internal representation.

For more information use the following calc commands:

help intro

help builtin

help stdlib

help define

show builtins

show functions

DATA TYPES

Fundamental builtin data types include integers, real numbers, rational numbers, complex numbers and strings.

By use of an object, one may define an arbitrarily complex data types. One may define how such objects behave a wide range of operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, negation, squaring, modulus, rounding, exponentiation, equality, comparison, printing and so on.

For more information use the following calc commands:

help types

help obj

show objfuncs

VARIABLES

Variables in **calc** are typeless. In other words,
the fundamental type of a variable is determined by its content. Before
variable is assigned a value is of type ‘‘null’’.

The scope of a variable may be global, or only a local to a procedure. Values may be grouped together in a matrix, or into a a list that permits stack and queue style operations.

For more information use the following calc commands:

help variable

help mat

help list

show globals

INPUT/OUTPUT

A leading ‘‘0x’’ implies a hexadecimal value, a
leading ‘‘0b’’ implies a binary value, and a ‘‘0’’ followed by a digit implies
an octal value. Complex numbers are indicated by a trailing ‘‘i’’ such as in
‘‘3+4i’’. Strings may be delimited by either a pair of single or double quotes.
By default, **calc** prints values as if they were floating point numbers. One
may change the default to print values in a number of modes including fractions,
integers and exponentials.

A number of stdio-like file I/O operations are provided. One may open, read, write, seek and close files. Filenames are subject to ‘‘~’’ expansion to home directories in a way similar to that of the Korn or C-Shell.

For example:

~/.calcrc

~chongo/lib/fft_multiply.cal

For more information use the following calc command:

help file

CALC LANGUAGE

The **calc** language is a C-like language.
The language includes commands such as variable declarations, expressions,
tests, labels, loops, file operations, function calls. These commands are
very similar to their counterparts in C.

The language also include a number
of commands particular to **calc** itself. These include commands such as function
definition, help, reading in library scripts, dump files to a file, error
notification, configuration control and status.

For more information use the following calc command:

help command

help statement

help expression

help operator

help config

- ${LIBDIR}
- library scripts shipped with calc

- ${LIBDIR}/help
- help files

Typically ${LIBDIR} is /usr/local/lib/calc

Thanks for suggestions and encouragement from Peter Miller, Neil Justusson, and Landon Noll.

Portions of this program are derived from an earlier set of public domain arbitrarily precision routines which was posted to the net around 1984. By now, there is almost no recognizable code left from that original source.

Most of this source and binary is:

Copyright (c) 1992 David I. Bell

Some files are a copyrighted David I. Bell and Landon Noll.

Permission is granted to use, distribute, or modify this source, provided that this copyright notice remains intact.

Send calc comments, suggestions, bug fixes, enhancements and interesting calc scripts that you would like you see included in future distributions to:

dbell@pdact.pd.necisa.oz.au and chongo@toad.com

Enjoy!